Opposition parties and local governance in contemporary Angola and Mozambique: mechanisms of exclusion and domination
This chapter explores what makes opposition parties will elections in sub-Saharan Africa. Modern understandings of democracy typically encapsulate Dahl's dictum that democracy requires not only popular participation but also competition. Democratic vertical accountability also has a direct relationship with underdevelopment in Africa. If voters reward politicians with loyalty in exchange for private goods, politicians are incentivized to siphon off resources from the state in order to provide more clientelistic rents. Since 1992, there have been two alternations in power across five national elections and both of the two main parties have now managed to return to office after previously losing in Ghana. During this period, the share of the National Democratic Congress (NDC) in legislative seats has changed from 96" in the first parliament down to 41" after the elections in 2004, and up again to 51" in the fifth parliament. From Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, and notably Zimbabwe, opposition parties have simply been prevented from winning elections.