Assessment of Nonpoint Pollution Instruments: The Case of Spanish Agriculture
This chapter explores the water-energy nexus of Spain and offers calculations for both the energy used in the water sector and the water required to run the energy sector. It takes a prospective approach, offering evaluations of policy objectives for bio fuels and expected renewable energy sources. Approximately 5.8 percent of total electricity demand in Spain is due to the water sector. Irrigated agriculture is one of the Spanish water sectors that show the largest growth in energy requirements. Searches for more efficient modes of farm water use, urban waste water treatment, and the use of desalinated water must henceforth include the energy component. Furthermore, bio fuel production, to the levels targeted for 2020, would have an unbearable impact on the already stressed water resources in Spain. However, growing usage of renewable energy sources is not threatened by water scarcity, but legislative measures in water allocation and water markets will be required to meet the requirements of using these sources.