This chapter discusses the draft Hydrological Basin Plan (HBP) for the Guadalquivir river basin and its related Programme of Measures (PoM). It argues that the Guadalquivir draft HBP is a useful strategy for the achievement of sustainable water management because it details economic and technical measures to control demand whilst fulfilling waste water treatment objectives. The two main issues that define the Guadalquivir draft HBP are: reducing water demand; and investment in point pollution. The Guadalquivir draft HBP is an example of integration of traditional Spanish water planning institutions, mostly focused on hydrological planning, with the new demands arising from the implementation of the water framework directive (WFD) and its ecological objectives, as well as with the expected decline of water availability due to climate change. The HBP and PoM imply a significant increase in cost of services of water for both the urban and irrigation sectors.