Access to print literacy for children and young people with visual impairment: implications for policy and practice
This chapter presents a meta-analysis of experiments that compared the explicit memory of participants with intellectual disability (ID) with various aetiologies with peers with typical development (TD). The effect of several moderators, such as the age of the control group, type of memory test and modality of the tasks, was examined. The current meta-analysis focuses on memory studies performed since 1990, when the new concepts of explicit and implicit memory were introduced into research of memory in populations with ID. The neuropsychological profiles of other aetiologies, such as Williams syndrome (WS), and the localisation of their deficit in the brain comprised the basis for memory studies since 1990. Functional dissociation in participants without brain damage and neuropsychological dissociation in brain-damaged patients suggest that memory is composed of a series of functionally independent, but interacting, systems. The short-term memory (STM), or working memory, is the system in which essential temporary information is stored for a short period of time.