International review of the evidence on best practice in educational provision for children on the autism spectrum
Long-term memory (LTM) is the system in which information that we receive from the environment is stored for long periods of time. One of the fundamental dissociations in LTM is between explicit and implicit memory. Implicit memory or procedural memory refers to non-conscious effects of past experiences on subsequent behaviour and performance. Two main categories of factors relating to explicit memory (EM) in populations with ID are at the core of the educational implications presented in the following sections: factors related to task characteristics and those related to participant characteristics. Factors that affect EM in a population with intellectual disability (ID) relate to three main task characteristics: depth of processing, task modality, and test type. The meta-analysis indicated relatively well-preserved EM among participants with Williams syndrome (WS) compared to TD. However, the participants with WS exhibited deficits in visuo-spatial tasks.