Critical discourse analysis and the ethnography of language policy
The study of language policy, often described as the field of language planning and policy (LPP),
has undergone a series of paradigmatic shifts since its founding in the early 1960s; yet, a peren-
nial challenge is how to make connections between the macro and the micro, that is, between the
multiple layers of language policy creation, interpretation, and appropriation. As Hult (2010,
p. 7) characterizes it, ‘How language behaviors on individual and community levels relate to
the language policies at societal levels continues to be a central question in LPP scholarship’.
Hult outlines how, working within the ecology of language orientation, nexus analysis can be
used to illuminate LPP discourses across multiple levels of social context. Other approaches
have been proposed as well, including discourse analysis of speech chains (Mortimer, in
press), a discourse-historical approach (Wodak, 2006), and the ethnography of language
policy (Hornberger & Johnson, 2007, 2010) and, here, I examine how critical discourse analysis
(CDA) can be integrated into the ethnography of language policy.