The role of internal guidelines in shaping news narratives: ethnographic insights into the discursive rhetoric of Middle East reporting by the BBC and Al-Jazeera English
Hodge (1979, p. 158) identifies three basic ways to arrive ‘at the underlying structure or ideol-
ogy’ of media institutions and their discourse: (1) interviewing editors about the sets and ideas
through which they organize their experiences and sense of the communicative events they
cover, or examining the guidelines or instructions through which editors and journalists maintain
editorial policies and practices; (2) starting from the world of events covered by a media insti-
tution and tracing the process involved to the final stage of production; and (3) starting from the
text to unravel what underlies a media institution’s social structure and ideology.