Teacher education in Canada
Responsibility for education in Canada is within a federal system of shared powers since Canada’s Constitution Act of 1867 provides that ‘[I]n and for each province, the legislature may exclusively make Laws in relation to Education’. In the 13 jurisdictions (10 provinces and three territories), the responsibility to organise, deliver and assess education at elementary, secondary and tertiary (including technical and vocational) levels lies with departments or ministries of education. As a result, there is no federal department of education and no integrated national system of education. Viewed as a nation, one notes the signiﬁcant differences in curriculum, assessment, governance and accountability policies among the jurisdictions that express the geography, history, language, culture and corresponding specialised needs of the populations served (Council of Ministers of Education Canada 2008).