chapter
2 Pages

Preface

Citizenship has in recent years become important to legal and political theory, as its significance in contemporary debates around republicanism, multiculturalism and cosmopolitanism and their critics shows. Citizenship has also become a salient concept in public policy debates (in the design of EU political institutions, for example, and in transnational conceptions of citizenship more generally); in political initiatives (the UK Government’s ‘Big Society’ and the Industrial Areas Foundation in the USA); and through civil society movements such as London Citizens and Strangers into Citizens. This current pre-occupation with citizenship raises, in an acute form, the

position of those members of the polity who are only partial citizens, who are full citizens but not treated or regarded as such by other members of the polity, or who face other social or economic obstacles to achieving full citizenship. This group includes resident migrants, prisoners, children and the disabled, among others. Some of these groups have been studied by political theorists, but they are not often compared together, and nor have they been much studied in the context of a normative ideal of citizenship. Whether citizenship is advanced as a legal status, a set of rights, or a form of political membership makes a difference in how we conceptualise those who lack full citizenship. A further challenge is to explain when and why partial citizenship is an injustice and whether marginalisation and/or cognate concepts such as oppression, exclusion and alienation best capture that injustice. The contributions in this volume explore the nature of marginal citizenship,

as a concept that unites a number of disadvantaged groups, as well as the specific position of these groups. The volume is designed to address a range of distinct cases of marginal citizenship from the point of view of normative political theory, legal theory and public policy. We have composed our selection in order to address a range of distinct cases of marginal citizenship. To that end, we begin with Owen’s discussion of the central case of immigrants as marginal citizens. Bosniak continues the discussion of immigrants, but focuses on involuntary migration, and the relationship between slavery and citizenship. Mantouvalou’s contribution addresses the issue of slavery and citizenship with a particular focus on forced labour and economic rights. The question of labour, contribution, and civic standing is then developed in

relationship to the topic of disability and social justice, and Stark focuses on conceptions of the civic status of disabled people through discussions of luck egalitarian and democratic citizenship. Smith continues the discussion of disabled people and citizenship, and analyses notions of agency and well-being and their effect on conception of full and marginal citizenship. Conceptions of agency are central to Cook’s rejection of child-citizenship as defined by absence of agency, and he proposes an alternative reciprocity based view of child-citizenship and attendant rights, such as meaningful work and democratic voice. Ramsay takes up the question of democratic voice and citizenship by examining the legal and normative arguments for prisoner disenfranchisement, and he considers whether marginalisation is a just punishment. Seglow concludes the volume by focusing on a conceptual and normative analysis of marginal citizenship. Each contributor will be asked to explore the group at issue, and to the-

matise their conclusions in the context of the larger debate around marginal citizenship. Thus we expect the collection as a whole not only to offer insight into the predicament of migrants, prisoners, children, the disabled and so on, but also to reflect upon what that implies for citizenship itself, as well as allied concepts such as justice and rights. With that in mind, the objectives of the collection are (i) to contrast and

compare the position of the marginalised groups at issue; (ii) to explore the ways that this marginalisation is an injustice; (iii) to clarify the theoretical grounds for a number of proposals on the policy agenda, including the enfranchisement of prisoners, labour rights for children, a citizens’ income, and probationary citizenship for resident migrants; and (iv) to contribute to the debate on citizenship among liberal, republican and communitarian theorists.