Modes of knowledge mobilization by/for international bureaucracies throughout international policy processes
This chapter focuses on the mobilization of knowledge in the international policy process by/for international bureaucracies, and not on the mobilization of knowledge by/for other actors involved in these processes. Four distinct modes of knowledge mobilization are identified such as advocacy, technical/applied, policy tool/resource and old school. The international policy process, for the most part, follow a standard trajectory: issue identification, agenda setting, policy negotiation, policy implementation, and finally monitoring, review and enforcement, the outcome of which often feeds back into implementation activities. Throughout the various stages of the international policy process, dynamic interactions between diverse actors are at play, with different types of actors often driving different phases of the policy process. The chapter also provides examples of different ways scholars and experts, and their knowledge, have been mobilized by/for bureaucracies across these five phases of the international policy process.