chapter  6
49 Pages

Against annihilation

The right to existence
WithJoseph Marko, Hedwig Unger, Roberta Medda-Windischer, Alexandra Tomaselli, Filippo Ferraro

‘Never again!’ was the political formula for the further development of public international law after the end of the Second World War in 1945 and with the end of the Cold War in 1989 – having provided a decades-long negative peace through mutual nuclear deterrence – Europe, at least, seemed to enter a new, even more peaceful era. However, the wars in the 1990s in the wake and aftermath of the collapse of the multinational communist federations, the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics and Yugoslavia, and with the genocide committed in Srebrenica in Bosnia-Herzegovina under the eyes of United Nations (UN) peacekeepers in 1995, hot physical violence in its most abhorrent forms of so-called mass atrocities had returned back to Europe, shocking all but maybe the most hawkish military realists.