chapter  11
28 Pages

Differentiated Secularization in Europe: Comparative Results

As has already been pointed out in the introduction to this book, changes in the domain of religion cannot be presented as a unilinear, deterministic process. Where secularization processes can be observed, these processes are not inevitable, irreversible or one-way; and they are certainly not teleological. Moreover, it is necessary, as has already been made clear in the introduction, to distinguish between different social levels of religious change. Like Karel Dobbelaere (2002), we differentiate between a societal, an organizational and an individual level of religious change, and therefore talk in terms of ‘societal secularization’, ‘organizational secularization’, and ‘individual secularization’.