The Transition to Managerial Patronage in Russia’s Regions
By the end of the 1990s Yeltsin’s federal policy, based on concessions to particular regions and their leaders, had generated many dysfunctional effects, namely a limited ability of the federal centre to enforce its policy preferences, a rising sense of inequitable treatment, and, in some cases, spiralling demands from regional elites. One of Putin’s priorities was to strengthen the federal centre and assure conformity between regional and federal laws. Dubbed the creation of a ‘power vertical’, the goal was to create a uniform system of executive power throughout the country, justified by reference to Article 77 of the 1993 Russian Constitution. Putin’s reforms were not presented as altering the underlying federal nature of the Russian system, but rather as an improvement in its realisation.