This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book underlines how radical transformations of the state or even political ruptures may create new opportunities for lesbian and gay activists. The lesbian and gay movement may also alter state institutions, as illustrated by the introduction of new institutions, agencies or special committees dealing with these issues. These bodies are not always the sole result of movement's strategies, but may also be the consequences of supranational pressures and commitments. In several EU countries, these institutions would not have appeared without EU legislation, although activists had sometimes been advocating them for years. The book also draws attention to the complex relationships between state and civil society that can exist in different contexts, and highlights how cautious one needs to be about uncritically applying Western categories to analyse non-Western states.