User-Developers, Model Students and Ambassador Users: e Role of the Public in the Global Distribution of Nineteenth- Century Anatomical Models
Among the many treasures at the Boerhaave Museum in Leiden, from Antonie van Leeuwenhoek’s microscopes to the heliumliquefactor of Nobel Prize winner Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, there is a room dedicated to a spectacular display of artificial human and animal bodies: the anatomical models of Dr Auzoux (see Plate 2).2 These models, developed in France in the nineteenth century, were made in papier-mâché. They are dissectible into parts, labelled, and brightly painted. At the Boerhaave Museum, the display of the life-sized male model shows how they come apart. Elsewhere other museums celebrate the papier-mâché anatomies. At the Science Museum in London and at the Musée Fragonard in Alfort, Auzoux models of the horse take pride of place.3 The Smithsonian Museum in Washington DC and the Whipple Museum in
1 For comments and suggestions I am grateful to Rina Knoeff, Robert Zwijnenberg and the participants at the workshop Cultures of Anatomical Collections, Leiden, 15-17 February 2012. Parts of this chapter have been published previously in Anna Maerker, ‘Anatomizing the Trade: Designing and Marketing Anatomical Models as Medical Technologies, c. 1700-1900’, Technology and Culture, 54:3, 2013, pp. 534, 539, 542, 545-7, 549-53. © 2013 by the Society for the History of Technology. Reprinted with permission of Johns Hopkins University Press. Thanks also to Museum Boerhaave in Leiden for permission to use images from their collection.