The transfer, translation and transformation of Froebelian theory and practice
This chapter explores how Frederich Froebel's theory was transferred, translated and transformed on implementation by the Froebelian Annie L. Howe. Howe was an American missionary woman and was seconded to Japan by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions of the Congregational Church to establish a Christian kindergarten in Japan. The chapter highlights Froebelian theory and practice and the way in which these involve the interplay of social, political, educational and cultural conditions. In Japan, there are different types of Froebelian who transferred the ideas of the kindergarten into Japan. Japanese Froebelians were mostly men who held important posts in the Meiji government or in the Ministry of Education, and had their own views and values regarding kindergarten education. In 1889, the Glory Kindergarten and Teacher Training School were opened in Kobe by Howe. They were organised along Froebelian lines from practice developed in the USA and, importantly, were based on Christian worldviews.