This chapter explores various theoretical perspectives on the nature of technology. It examines how education could rise to the challenge of the digital revolution. Digital literacies aim to describe the underpinning abilities that are needed to interact with digital technology. Just as traditional literacies aim to describe an individual's ability to work with words and numbers, digital literacy aims to describe how an individual works with digital technology and digital environments. The digital revolution creates the potential for learning to take place in informal online communities. Knowledge and learning is no longer monopolised by institutions such as schools, universities and libraries. Connectivism argues for the need to rethink the relationship between teachers and pupils in the digital age. Digital scepticism, challenges the assumption that education should be uncritically wedding itself to technology. The chapter explains three main effects that technology has on society and what it means for education: speed, individualisation and privacy.