This conclusion presents some closing thoughts of the concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of the book. The book indicates that it remains a problem that many students fail to spontaneously use appropriate learning and reasoning strategies in situations when it would be helpful to do so. Researchers have designed interventions, programs, and learning environments that can promote the desired spontaneity. Furthermore, many of the mechanisms underlying successful promotion of spontaneous strategy use are understood, which makes it possible to draw out crucial principles for educational practice. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) includes the knowledge to construct or adapt a learning environment to support complex learning through inquiry and problem solving, and to effectively orchestrate learning activities within that environment. The learning environment includes the curriculum, activity structures, problems and activities, materials, and technologies that students engage with while learning.