Promoting learners’ spontaneous use of effective questioning
Numerous studies have been undertaken to elucidate effective pedagogical methods for cultivating questioning skills in students. In terms of classifying different types of questions, the most influential classification system has been Bloom's taxonomy. Teachers' questions are potential models for students in generating their own high-quality questions. Especially for student teachers, it is necessary to provide training programs to improve their questioning skills so that they, in turn, can provide their students the necessary modeling in generating high-quality questions. In 1998, Sato analyzed students' learning strategy use as well as the cognitive cost associated with the use of the strategies and found that when students perceive a high cost to using a strategy, they tend not to use that strategy. In a practical setting, Pedrosa-de-Jesus and Moreira used formative and summative assessments as tools for fostering students' questioning behaviors. Thus, this chapter introduced research findings and classroom practice conducted by Japanese researchers and teachers.