How to address students’ lack of spontaneity in diagram use
This chapter provides a brief review of the pertinent findings from those studies, which deal with students ranging from the junior high school through to the university levels. Diagram use is one of the most effective strategies that students can employ in solving math word problems. In 2012, Uesaka and Manalo critically examined a previous suggestion that students' spontaneity in using diagrams is affected by the length-relatedness of the story context of math word problems. Students' general lack of spontaneity in diagram use is also an issue with written communication. The possible reasons for the problem are considered, and then instructional strategies aimed at promoting the desired spontaneity are described, including research findings about their effectiveness. Topics such as how to improve conditional knowledge about other learning strategies, and how to promote the quality of learning strategy use, should be examined more in future research in this area alongside the issue of spontaneous use.