chapter  4
12 Pages

Fall and Rise of the Hospitaller and Templar Castles in Syria at the End of the Thirteenth Century

In the medieval Middle East – then known as Bilād al-Shām – the second half of the thirteenth century represented the last turning point of the crusading period, when the rise of the Mamluk dynasty shattered the well-established military and political settlements of the Franks. In this context, the numerous strongholds, citadels and towers built by the Military Orders of the Templars and Hospitallers in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries to improve the defensive network of the Latin states against the Seljuk and Ayyubid counter-crusades became primary military targets for the Mamluks.