The Mediterranean Sea as a European Border: Trans-Mediterranean Migration, Forced Return and Violation of Fundamental Rights
This chapter presents that people realize that a more efficient, closer-knit external border must be constructed to replace the current, purely symbolic signposting around Europe. The populist surge observed in Europe must not be the only criterion by which to set border policy, and it is essential for democratic governments to find social artefacts to explain and render acceptable a controlled opening of the borders. Since the end of the Cold War, over 26,000 kilometers of borders have been created throughout the world. The chapter explores the globalization that had put paid to that, but more walls are appearing in various countries, such as those between the United States and Mexico, and Israel and the occupied territories. In the Persian Gulf, walls are sprouting up in the desert, between the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Oman, and even, on the initiative of the United Nations, between Kuwait and Iraq.