Citizenship Divided, Education Deprived: Gender and Migrant Children’s Rights to Schooling in Urban China
Citizenship is a complex, dynamic, and contested term. It generally refers to a legal status bestowed on member of a given country, but has been expanded to include individual civil, political, and social rights and duties. Feminist scholars have further challenged masculine bias in this supposedly universalistic term, pointing out the particularity, diversity, and division in society. The reality is that not all members in society are entitled to equal citizenship rights because of their differences in gender, race, ethnicity, class, age, sexuality, nationality, and/or ability/ disability. The intersectionality of these differences has expanded the complex and fragmented meanings and practices of citizenship. Thus some who are officially granted equal rights under law, in fact, have differential claim to citizenship. They often are subjected to unfair treatment as second-or even third-class citizens.