Libya: The Promise and Pitfalls of Diplomacy
This chapter examines the role of diplomacy in crisis resolution between Libya and the international community from the mid-1990s until the fall of Muammar Gaddafi. After decades of radical policies and growing tensions, the Gaddafi regime found itself subject to international economic sanctions and isolation. Following repeated attempts to engage the West in dialogue, a series of secret negotiations began in the late 1990s. These talks culminated in the negotiated decommissioning of Libya’s nuclear weapons programme in late 2003. As a result, Tripoli transitioned from international pariah toward a normalized status in international society. Within a decade of this breakthrough, the Gaddafi regime crumbled in the wake of a domestic revolution bolstered by a NATOled air campaign.