This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book explores the main findings of authors about the opportunities and barriers afforded to women under federalism, devolution and multilevel governance (MLG). It considers how political architecture affects the structuring of women's movements, the extent to which the architecture provides open or closed policy-making venues and its impact on policy outcomes. Federalism and/or MLG are often viewed as impeding the development of standard country-wide policies and programs to promote women's equality. In parliamentary federations, policy-making often involves closed decision-making between governments, with the only participants being government leaders and officials. While neoliberal forms of co-governance, transferring functions to private corporations, may disadvantage women, forms of co-governance that bring together government officials and women's non-governmental organizations (NGOs) may be structured to achieve feminist goals.