From Third Wave to Third Generation: Feminism, Faith, and
In recent decades, feminists of faith have been central voices in international human rights discussions. This was particularly the case at the UN-sponsored 1994 International Conference on Population and Development at Cairo and the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women at Beijing, which focused on core feminist issues of reproductive rights and gender equality. The struggle for women’s rights has rarely, however, been disconnected from broader struggles for human rights in the areas of poverty, peace, health, environmental sustainability, cultural rights, and rights to development and self-determination of peoples that have come to be known as the “third generation” of human rights. The hallmark RIWKLUGJHQHUDWLRQULJKWVLQFRQWUDVWZLWK¿UVWJHQHUDWLRQFLYLODQGSROLWLFDOULJKWV and second generation social, economic, and cultural rights, is that they involve big global problems that no state or region of the world can solve alone. For this reason, third generation rights are often referred to as rights of “fraternity” or “solidarity.”1 Third generation rights have become particularly important with the advent of globalization, with its exposure of the ways in which we are a connected and mutually interdependent world.