Governance of offshore oil and gas in the Arctic
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book addresses issues related to the need for democratic legitimisation of the offshore hydrocarbon activities in the Arctic – a demand that involves a widespread consent in the local communities in the implementation of and compliance with safety rules. It outlines the effects of globalisation, supranationalism and internationalisation in the Arctic, all phenomena that influence states in their approach to energy production in the offshore sector in particular. The book focuses on states and sub-state perspectives on offshore regulations and looks into the political, economic and cultural specificities of the national contexts in which oil and gas exploration and exploitation activities unfold. It highlights limits in the multilevel governance system, which remains very much state centred and is characterised by an insufficient commitment to the development of legally binding international standards on the protection of the Arctic marine area and public participation.