Leadership and Management Development in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: SME Worlds
This chapter describes 360 instruments as a part of broader process of personal development whose prime focus is improved leadership performance. It also examines the case studies that illustrate our belief in the value of a holistic, comprehensive and integrated approach supported by experienced coaches. A holistic approach to leadership development necessarily establishes links between personal values and leadership behaviour and the situation in which leadership takes place and perhaps explains why leadership is not easily transferable. Thus the emphasis of a 360 designed to support leadership development differs from a more generic management 360. A sound basis for judging current leadership effectiveness is to seek feedback from those who work closely with the leaders being assessed. 360 processes typically invite feedback from a participant's manager, or managers, their peers, direct reports and others including possibly customers and/or previous work colleagues. The design of the 360 includes action planning guidelines to enable its use on a more prolonged self-development basis.