chapter  6
16 Pages

Challenging the Regulatory Trinity: Global Trends in Health Professional Regulation

Traditionally, health professionals have been regulated through the use of a trinity of regulatory tools: civil, criminal and government-sanctioned self-regulation. Prospectively, health professionals have been regulated through governmentsanctioned self-regulation (although this also incorporated a retrospective element of discipline) (Kuhlmann and Saks 2008, Walshe 2009). Retrospectively, health professionals have been regulated through the mechanisms of civil litigation and, more rarely, criminal prosecution.