The Non-Perception Based Measurement of Corruption: A Review of Issues and Methods from a Policy Perspective
This chapter presents information about corruption research in Western European country with 16 million inhabitants. It reports on research about criminal cases and internal investigations. The image that is formed from the research on criminal cases is that the structure of the top of the corruption iceberg in the Netherlands consists of a limited number of criminal cases and convictions each year. The chapter adds to existing research and theory by the incorporation of the corruption concept into a broader theory of ethics and integrity of governance. It summarises the results of corruption reputation research. The chapter explores that what is the result of Transparency's Corruption Perception Index (CPI) research on the Netherlands and how this relates to the expert panel research that has been done. It presents an example of a survey among victims: how often are citizens confronted with bribing public sector functionaries. Another promising route are self-reports of actual deviant behaviour, collected with 'Randomised Response Techniques'.