Measuring Corruption: Exploring the Iceberg
Existing knowledge on corruption offers only a limited number of shared insights by researchers and practitioners. We all agree that corruption is an important and complex phenomenon and we agree that we disagree about its content. There are many different theories and conceptual frameworks, which lead to a multitude of descriptions, explanations and evaluations. As a consequence, to attempt to measure ‘corruption’ is, by deﬁnition, a risky and much disputed endeavour.