chapter  5
Manual Flying Skill Decay: Evaluating Objective Performance Measures
Pages 13

Despite the capability of modern jet transport aircraft to automatically manage their own flight path and energy for most phases of flight, there are occasions when reversion to basic manual control is essential or even preferable. Pilots may be forced to control the aircraft manually during abnormal situations, such as when recovering from unusual attitudes outside the automations limits of authority or during automation failures. Alternatively, during normal operations pilots may choose to adopt manual control where reconfiguring the automation may not be the most efficient option, for instance when performing a “sidestep” (US) manoeuvre to accommodate a late change in the assigned arrival runway. However, during the vast majority of airline operations the requirement for manual flight is limited. For a typical sector it may extend to just a few minutes following takeoff and a short period immediately before landing.