The City and the Body in Ángeles López’s Martina, la rosa número trece
Pan negro is an innovative example of the inter-contextuality of the self, domestic and public spatiality, and nature, which grounds the process of the child's growth and development through an appropriation of politically and culturally charged images of rural life. Exposing the financial and social contexts fundamental to child self-development in Francoist Spain, this novel fictionalizes how a young boy comes to appreciate, through a perceptive assessment of the different social units, social differentials. The novel's originality resides in its portrayal of the relationship between the child's interaction with the social world and his shameless espousal of a morally skewed value system, rather than the usual subscription to a sound moral code. Emili Teixidor's fashioning of an unappealing child protagonist is the basis of this novel's forcefulness, unsettling as it does the vision of the successful socialization of children, invariably taken for granted.