This chapter addresses the concept of labour regimes and what dimensions of the concept to focus on in explanations of labour activism in transition economies. The first part of the chapter starts with a review of conceptualizations of factory regimes and labour regimes. The concept of spatial embeddedness is central to the labour regime approach and important in analyses of power relations between state, capital and labour. It also addresses what a welfare-regime approach may have to offer studies of labour regimes, and how the struggle for labour rights is interlinked with the struggle for broader political rights. With examples from China and Vietnam, the second part of the chapter examines how labour regimes are formed in the context of transition economies and how this in turn affects labour activism.