The observations took place on board a Royal Air Force (RAF) Boeing E3D Sentry AWACS (Airborne Warning and Control System) aircraft. The RAF ran a two-week training course for Combined Qualified Weapons Instructors (CQWI). A simulated war exercise was carried out each day involving three key teams of personnel: ground based support, the E3D (AWACS) team and the fighter pilots. Ground based support includes all personnel assigned to the mission who are not flying in the simulated war exercise. The term ‘fighter pilots’ refers to both fighter and bomber pilots who took part in the exercise. These pilots flew between 20 and 40 aircraft for each mission.