Brazil's popular music industry, especially in the last 40 years, has enjoyed considerable success abroad as well as domestically. Brazilian national identity is further complicated by the existence of historically well-established regional autonomies, as well as by the diversity of the ethno-cultural baggage carried by successive waves of intercontinental immigration. One of the core tendencies of MPB has been a search for musical innovation through the incorporation both of Brazilian regional folk music material and of styles and motifs drawn from a variety of non-domestic contemporary sources. Sometimes obliquely, sometimes openly, Antnio Nbregas engages with a number of issues that have long provoked and continue to provoke debate in Brazil: race and class and culture, tradition and modernization, and their role in national self-definition. It considers what Nbregas approach to musical performance contributes to these debates and to the problematic question of national identity.