The Great Athonite Tradition in France
The Bolshevik Revolution and the advent of Soviet communism in Russia, as well as the Greek exodus from Asia Minor, caused significant immigration waves in Western Europe and in France: numerous Russians settled in places like Paris and Nice. In the course of inter-socialisation, many French people discovered Orthodoxy. The depreciation of the Second Vatican Council among some Roman Catholics also led to conversions to Orthodoxy. Orthodoxy in France thus tends increasingly to distance itself from cultural and ethnic identities, though these nevertheless continue to cause some canonical paradoxes.