National Identity and the Sense of (Non-) Belonging: Iranians in the United States and the Netherlands
This chapter discusses political mobilization of non-western minorities living in Oslo. Political scientists have drawn attention to the impact of the political opportunity structure in national systems as well as on a global level. Political participation is an interesting case of activity that in some cases is transnational. According to Eva stergaard-Nilsen transnational political networks represent an essential turn in political science, characterized by the fading dichotomy between the domestic and the international. Sidney Tarrow and Donatella delle Porta present perspectives on political engagements and social movements beyond borders which, they suggest, should help us understand political participation among ethnic minorities. The Pakistani respondents also produced interesting information concerning the significance of gender and transnationality. The analyses conducted and only minor differences between the sexes in both conventional and unconventional political participation of women within minority ethnic groups, which is a finding that deserves to, abolish stereotypical notions of passive minority women.