chapter  9
33 Pages

The No-Fly Zones and Low Intensity Conflict with Iraq, 1991–2003

ByDouglas M. Brattebo

This chapter examines the role that the no-fly zones, imposed by the Gulf War victors

over northern Iraq in 1991 and southern Iraq in 1992, impacted US policy toward

Iraq for more than a decade before the start of Operation Iraqi Freedom in March

2003. Designed to protect the Kurds in the north and the Shiites in the south, as

well as to contain Saddam Hussein’s ambitions and prevent him from threatening

neighboring countries, the no-fly zones soon became the main venue for political

provocations and military confrontations between allied and Iraqi military forces.