The No-Fly Zones and Low Intensity Conﬂict with Iraq, 1991–2003
This chapter examines the role that the no-ﬂy zones, imposed by the Gulf War victors
over northern Iraq in 1991 and southern Iraq in 1992, impacted US policy toward
Iraq for more than a decade before the start of Operation Iraqi Freedom in March
2003. Designed to protect the Kurds in the north and the Shiites in the south, as
well as to contain Saddam Hussein’s ambitions and prevent him from threatening
neighboring countries, the no-ﬂy zones soon became the main venue for political
provocations and military confrontations between allied and Iraqi military forces.