chapter  1
16 Pages

Presidential Decision-Making: Three Models and the Road to War with Iraq

ByDenise Von Hermann

Some American foreign policy scholars have noted that the events of 11 September,

2001, began a “transformation”1 of the Bush presidency. Viewed previously as lacking

focus or clarity, the post-9/11 Bush administration took on an air of determination

and certainty about its goals and how it might best achieve them. In much the

same way that 9/11 brought White House foreign policy goals into perspective, the

invasion of Iraq in the spring of 2003 revealed a resolute presidential team: one that

appeared publicly to have fallen into near lock-step on a critical and internationally

controversial policy.