This chapter presents a synthesis of the findings of Component 2 of the Regoverning Markets programme. It is based on all 39 case studies commissioned by the programme,1 including the ten selected for this book (see the list in the Reference section). The different case studies informed the nature of the studied innovations and their features over time as well as their key determinants based on the common documentation process presented in the Introduction although, in many respects, the presented information for each case study also reflects the huge heterogeneity between the cases. This analytical material was used to identify the salient features and insights that could be gained from understanding innovations including smallholders in dynamic markets. After recognizing the importance of the studied market dynamics, findings are grouped first around the different role players and their intervention. Then, costs and benefits of inclusion are discussed. Finally, major conclusions are put forward.