Challenges in curriculum and language of instruction in post- conflict Somalia: A case study
Researchers and commentators have long discussed the impact of war on education. The literature in the field has mentioned at least three ways in which armed conflicts directly affect schools and those who work in education. Damage to learning spaces and to infrastructure was the most common impact (Al-Missned, 2010; DFID, 2001; Hodgkin, 2006; Machel, 2001; Magill, 2010; Obura, 2003). Beyond the physical distractions lies a human cost that directly affects pupils, both through short-term and longterm impacts (Garbarino, Kostelny, and Dubrow, 1991; Nylund, Legrand, and Holtsberg, 1999; O’Malley, 2007; Pirisi, 2001; Save the Children, 2006; Sommers, 2002). The conflict also took its toll on teachers (Abdi, 1998; Obura, 2003; O’Malley, 2007; World Bank, 2002). Many scholars have discussed measures to protect schools from conflict. Needless to say, the literature has equally discussed measures to protect schools from conflict (Buckland, 2004; Bush and Salterelli, 2000; Dupuy, 2008; King, 2008; Nolan, 2006; Obura, 2003; Save the Children, 2008; Sinclair, 2010; Smith and Vaux, 2003; Tawil and Harley, 2004; UNICEF, 2011).