Airline and Railway (Dis)Integration
The inauguration of High-Speed Rail (HSR) services in Japan in 1964 was never meant to provide an alternative to the aircraft, but to increase capacity on the Tokyo-Osaka route in order to meet growing demand. Similar was the case in France about 20 years later when the French TGV services began operation (Givoni 2006). In Europe in those years, rail transport was experiencing a decline in patronage, largely attributed to increase in car ownership and the corresponding increase and reliance on car use, and also the increase in competition from the airlines as flying became more affordable. Demand for air transport in those days was growing, facilitated by the process to liberalize European air transport and, as a result, the emergence of the Low Cost Carriers (LCCs).