chapter  5
Conceptions of Global Leadership for Contextually Intelligent, Innovatively Adaptive Political Leaders
ByJoseph Masciulli, W. Andy Knight
Pages 34

In this chapter, we explore some dimensions of ‘good’ adaptive and innovative global political leadership. Leadership studies – whether in the context of small groups, nations, or the international and global system as a whole – are either descriptive-explanatory, normative-prescriptive, or both. These studies use a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches. Some studies are primarily descriptive-explanatory studies, for example, and analyse performance and leadership (Bass 1985), women and leadership (Rosner 1990) and regimes, crises and leadership (Hermann and Kegley 1995; Keller 2005). Other studies are primarily normative-prescriptive, on the other hand, and examine theories such as Burns’s theory of transformational leadership (1978; 2003), and Sheffer’s theory of innovative leadership in international politics (1993). In fact, in most of the cases, investigators engage in both descriptive-explanatory and normative-prescriptive analysis, though there is a clear emphasis in one direction or the other (gergen 2000; Kellerman and Rhode 2007; Nye 2008). despite bureaucrats, technocrats, theocrats, and economic and other structuralist determinists – all of whom reject the centrality of human social leadership – leadership is a significant research programme in international relations, global politics, business, the military, religious and educational institutions, and in society in general. Leadership studies are valuable because leadership is a universal phenomenon (trans-historical and trans-cultural – Rejai and Phillips 2002): all humans are engaged at different times and in diverse manners in a variety of roles characteristic of either leadership or

followership, whether in politics or in other social spheres at the local and/or global level (Bass 1990).