This chapter examines a case study of agricultural research for development that moves from gender mainstreaming or integration towards an approach that seeks change and innovation within agricultural systems through gender transformative approaches. It looks at the Papa Andina Initiative and its legacy of actor platforms in the native potato value chains of Peru to illustrate how agricultural researchers might move towards gender transformative approaches in agricultural systems and innovation processes. The chapter explores how institutional aspects identified within Papa Andina influenced transformation and change in agricultural innovation from a gender perspective. It examines how actors, interactions, methodologies and tools from the initiative could have been directed towards gender transformative change in agricultural innovation systems. The chapter analyses how individuals' sense of self impacts capacity for gender transformative change. It addresses why after numerous gender activities the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research must still re-examine its strategies.