A critical component in any international regime or special arrangements for the Old City of Jerusalem will be the establishment of mutually agreed norms for the preservation of cultural artefacts and monuments and for the conduct of archaeological excavations. This chapter examines the role of UNESCO in safeguarding Old Jerusalem's diverse cultural heritage. Palestinians and Israelis have vied for control of the Old City of Jerusalem over many decades, each looking to this one site as a source of inspiration and a symbol of legitimacy. The Antiquities Law passed in 1978 plays a key role in determining Israel's heritage development and establishing ownership of antiquity sites. With regard to UNESCO's involvement in post-conflict situations, there is an increasing spectrum and array of international operations to safeguard and protect heritage and cultural artefacts at risk. UNESCO's world heritage mission objectives indicate the importance placed upon educational values in its work.