Introduction Critical criminology
The various types of critical criminology can be summed up as perspectives that view crime as: rooted in economic, social and political inequalities, and criminal actions, which separate, and otherwise cause governments at all levels everywhere to differentially and punish offenders. In the mid-1980s and early 1990s, the criminological world saw the development of what was then four new directions in critical criminology: feminism, left realism, peacemaking, and postmodernism. Another positive sign for critical criminology is the rapid growth of literature in the field. This is one of the key reasons for producing the second edition of The Handbook of Critical Criminology. Critical criminology has reached the point where there is plenty of room for various accounts of its exciting history. Not only has critical criminology failed to effectively engage with scholars of color, but it has also failed to do so with many members of other groups, such as Indigenous peoples and those based in the global South.