This chapter briefly outlines several possible projects of a southern criminology. The development of a southern criminology will not suddenly overturn the knowledge/power relations that have shaped social science in general and criminology in particular, but it may usefully aim to modify them in productive ways. Space constraints prevent us from elaborating the argument at length. The southern is a metaphor for the other, the invisible, the subaltern, the marginal and the excluded. Southern criminology seeks to insert these events and relations back into history and contemporary analysis. The southern plantation economy of the United States was based on slavery until the civil war and on a brutal form of racial segregation for a further century after that. Hence the specific forms and effects of systemic violence and discrimination experienced by women where oppressive Islamic laws criminalize consensual adult sex outside marriage is an important project for a southern criminology.