chapter  12
Foreign Aid and Conflict: What We Know and Need to Know
ByBradley Parks, Caroline Bergeron, Michael J. Tierney
Pages 5

The World Development Report 2011 calls attention to the fact that “one-and-a-half billion people live in areas affected by fragility, conflict, or large-scale, organized criminal violence, and no low-income fragile or conflict-affected country has yet to achieve a single United Nations Millennium Development Goal” (World Bank, 2011). In order to confront this long-standing challenge, donors of foreign aid have invested billions of dollars in fragile and conflict-affected (F/CA) countries over the recent decades. Between 2003 and 2007, the US government invested approximately $32 billion in reconstruction funds in Iraq alone (Berman, et al., 2011).