Advanced perspectives for ethical and socially responsible marketing decisions
The foundational discussion of the four basic perspectives (BPs) developed in Chapter 1 is essential to constructing the ﬁ nal three normative, ethical perspectives explained in this chapter. It was also important to deﬁ ne and introduce the scope of marketing ethics before examining the more theoretical concepts presented here. We reaﬃ rm that any analysis of business or marketing ethics must begin with a primary focus on persons as was outlined in BP1. Also, understanding that the law only provides minimal guidance for ethical decision making is another basic proposition (recall BP2) for justifying the comprehensive ethical theories we discuss below. The three components of intentions, means, and outcomes (BP3) are shorthand but important descriptors of the fundamental elements for understanding marketing ethics. Furthermore, the reader should recollect the distinctions between the four types of managers when contemplating possible marketing actions (BP4). Recall how the development of moral imagination among all managers is essential to nurturing an ethical culture. With those four BPs as a groundwork, we now continue our exposition with the major ethical theories that will be most useful in undertaking a thorough analysis of the cases in the subsequent sections of this book.